Infertility Symptoms, Causes, and Management

Infertility Symptoms

Infertility is an inability to conceive or get pregnant naturally. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either partner or many causes that may prevent pregnancy. Let’s improve your understanding related to infertility and infertility symptoms.

In this article, you will get complete information about

  • Infertility Symptoms
  • Causes of Infertility
  • Risk Factors of infertility
  • Complication
  • Prevention and Management of Infertility

Types of Infertility

  • Primary Infertility: In this type, someone who has never conceived a child in the past has difficulty in conceiving
  • Secondary Infertility: In this type, the woman who once got pregnant is unable to conceive again

Infertility Symptoms

Not able to get pregnant is the main sign of infertility. However, the following are the signs of infertility that should be considered to see a doctor:

  • Women of age 35 to 40 who are not able to become pregnant after trying for 6 months or more
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Women suffering from hormonal imbalances
  • Women with pelvic inflammatory disease
  • White discharge from nipples in women
  • Miscarriages ( more than one time )
  • Men having problems with sperm count
  • Men with a swollen scrotum or small testicles
  • The Trouble with sex organs or sexual desire
  • Painful sex

What are the Causes of Infertility?

Infertility may be caused by the following reasons:

Female infertility:

  • Early menopause
  • PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) resulting in abnormal functioning of ovaries
  • Abnormal shape or opening of uterus or cervix
  • Inflamed/damaged fallopian tubes
  • Abnormal thyroid and pituitary gland that disturbs the hormonal levels
  • Damage caused to ovaries due to too much exercise, alcohol, smoking, and abnormal eating habits
  • Abnormal eating habits like skipping a meal, not taking proper calcium in the diet
  • Long term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin or ibuprofen
Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Male infertility:

  • Low sperm count means less than 10 million sperms per milliliter of semen
  • No sperm in semen
  • Abnormal shape and less mobile sperm obstructs in fertilization of the egg
  • Infections in testicles
  • Problems in ejaculation
  • Low testosterone level
  • Prolonged and too much exposure to pesticides, smoking tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol
  • Working in very hot environments may also damage testicles

Risk Factors of Infertility

The chances of becoming infertile increases in the following cases:

  • Female fertility decreases with the natural aging process (after 35 years)
  • Use of tobacco and smoke results in erectile dysfunction in males and increases miscarriages in females
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • Obesity
  • Low body fat
  • Multiple miscarriages
Limit Alcohol Intake


Infertility may be associated with the following complications:

  • Expensive reproductive procedures
  • Stressful relationships with the partner
  • More chances of hormonal difficulties
  • Fertility procedures may result in multiple (twins/triplets) or ectopic pregnancy
  • Bleeding or infections may occur by reproductive procedures

Prevention and Management of Infertility

  • Cut the use of drugs e.g non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or aspirin
  • Limit the use of medications that affects fertility
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Maintain a proper body weight by regularly doing exercise



For females:

  • Ovulation tests help to determine the hormone levels in the body
  • Hysterosalpingography helps to diagnose the defects in fallopian tubes and uterus
  • Ovarian reserve testing defines the quality and quantity of the eggs
  • Ultrasound helps diagnose pelvic conditions

For males:

  • Semen detection helps in knowing the sperm health
  • Testosterone hormone tests
  • Ultrasound for diagnosing problems in sex organs

Treatment of female infertility:

  • Fertility drugs: Drugs such as clomiphene regulates ovulation process and hormones
  • Treating reproductive tract infections with antibiotics
  • Treatment with hormones to check hormonal imbalances
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): Directly placing a healthy sperm in the uterus near ovulation time
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF): Fertilizing the mature egg with a sperm in the lab and placing the embryo in the uterus after 3 – 5 days

Treatment of male infertility:

  • Nutritional supplements such as Coenzyme Q10, Lycopene, L-Arginine, etc to increase sperm count & motility

Points to Remember

  • Being infertile doesn’t mean one can never have a child
  • Plan a child before it gets complicated (before the mid-30s)
  • Do not have multiple sex partners
  • It is important to maintain a healthy body weight
  • Quit smoking and excess alcohol consumption

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