Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases Symptoms, Causes, &Management

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation of the female reproductive organs like the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory diseases are caused most often by the bacterial infections and sometimes by the viral, fungal, parasitic infections too. This disease gradually leads to permanent damage to the female reproductive organs and hence infertility. About 40% of women globally are estimated to develop PID if the infection is left untreated.

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Some women with pelvic inflammatory diseases do not have symptoms but some of them feel the symptoms, these symptoms are as follows:

  • Long and painful periods
  • Spotting and pain between menstrual periods
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Painful urination
  • Pain in the lower abdomen and back
  • Fever, chills
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Pain during the intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge (yellow or green color) with an unpleasant odor.
Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (Abdominal Pain)

If you have a severe problem then you should consult to the consultant to get relief.

Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and/or chlamydia is often the cause of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Other causes are:
• Abortion or miscarriage: If bacteria enter into the vagina then the infection can spread more easily and of the cervix is open.
Intrauterine device (IUD) used for contraception: It is a device that is placed into the uterus to control the birth. This can increase the risk of PID
Unhygienic childbirth: There is a probability to enter bacteria into the vagina during unhygienic childbirth which may cause PID.
Tumor or cyst in the ovary
Unprotected intercourse

Risk Factors of PID

Risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases increases if you are suffering from gonorrhea or have had an STI before. However, Chances of getting PID is also possible without STI.

There are also other risk factors for PID

  • Untreated sexually transmitted disease
  • Having sex under the age of 25
  • Unprotected sex with multiple partners
  • Have sex with the partner who has sex partner other than you.
  • Intrauterine devices inserted for the birth control
  • Having a history of pelvic inflammatory Diseases

What Happen When PID Persist For Longer Period of Time??

If PID is not treated well on time and persists for a longer period of time. It can cause various complications, complications associated with PID are:

  • Infertility, an inability to conceive a child
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Ectopic pregnancy – In this, the fertilized egg can’t make its way through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus
  • Formation of scar tissue occurs both outside and inside the fallopian tube that can lead to tubal blockage.
  • If the infection is not treated well on time, it spread to the other parts of the body also even in blood also which is life-threatening.

According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, 1 out of 8 women face the problem of pregnancy if they have PID

Prevention & Management of PID

As you all know that prevention is better than cure, so everybody should take prevention. There are a few ways which make you safe and protect from pelvic inflammatory Diseases.

  • Medical examination within the first week of insertion of IUD (Intra-Uterine Device)
  • Hygiene precautions during sexual intercourse
  • Use of the barrier methods such as condoms
  • Avoid sex too soon after childbirth, miscarriage


Treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease includes:

  • Antibiotics such as doxycycline, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone and to kill the causative bacteria
  • Paracetamol for the pain relief
  • A heating pad on the stomach to reduce the pain
  • Physical examination and treatment of partner for infectious diseases

Points to Remember

  • Drink lots of fluids, and eat a healthy diet.
  • Bed rest – PID patient needs several days of bed rest.
  • Avoid intercourse until treatment is completed
  • Take medicines prescribed by the doctor regularly

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